Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their by Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c.

By Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Helmut Beckmann (eds.)

Karl Leonhard’s "Classification of Endogenous Psychoses” relies on subtle medical descriptions and characteristical symptom styles happening in the course of the long term process psychiatric ailments. A prognosis will be made provided that the entire medical beneficial properties healthy, i.e. a different prognosis will not be made if one attribute symptom is missing. this is often the most and significant distinction among Leonhard’s type and the operational diagnostic platforms that require the presence of a few yet now not all particular signs of a symptom cluster. Leonhard took over the basic beneficial properties because the early days of Psychiatry and located, continually according to personal live-long case reports, that the endogenous psychoses must be divided into 5 major nosological diversified teams: at the one part the prognostically beneficial unipolar affective psychoses, bipolar affective psychoses and cycloid psychoses and at the different facet the prognostically unfavorable unsystematic and systematic schizophrenias. in the meantime its reliability and validity were proven by means of clinical stories and early effects supply instructions in regards to the diversified origins and sundry healing techniques for the explicit ailment profiles.

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A brother experienced manic and depressive phases at home, and in 1915 in the Frankfurt Hospital showed the picture of mania with expansive-confabulatory traits. Manic-Depressive Illness 15 Sometimes the stupor accompanying the depression is not comparable to the perplexed stupor of confusion psychosis, but rather to the akinesia of motility psychosis. In the latter there is the tendency towards freezing of expressive movements. Here the disturbance is not due to thought inhibition, as in perplexed stupor, but rather to psychomotor inhibition.

She was discharged against medical advice, recovered at home, and remained well for 20 years. In 1942 she returned to hospital and was again depressive and tired of life. This time she complained that her head was tied up, as if a ring was wrapped around it; she had no more interest in her household. She could not think anymore or read. The depression disappeared after about three months, although at discharge, she was still somewhat quiet and unsure of herself. A sister became ill in 1909, was anxious, and explained that something must have changed in her head.

Pure Melancholia The most important symptom of melancholia is the depressed mood. There can be implicit anxiety, but more often apathy gives the depression its characteristic form. The indifferent behaviour could make the patients seem "sad", but this concept, reflecting a higher mental state of mind, does not correctly describe melancholic depression; it appears to be more a physical decline of the feelings, not corresponding to mental sadness. K. SCHNEIDER'S concept of "vital" depression is very much like that of pure melancholia.

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