Citric Acid by Alexander Apelblat

By Alexander Apelblat

This monograph is dedicated to varied points linked to citric acid, inorganic citrates and their aqueous and natural ideas. It comprises information regarding houses, prevalence and technological purposes of citric acid and inorganic citrates. part equilibria - melting, freezing, boiling, vapour pressures, solubilities of citric acid in water, natural solvents and ternary platforms are provided, correlated, and analyzed. Dynamic houses - viscosities, diffusion coefficients, electric conductivities and floor tensions are tested. Mathematical representations of citric acid dissociation, in electrolyte strategies and in buffers are mentioned. Citric acid chemistry - syntheses of citric acid, neutralization, degradation, oxidation, esterification, formation of anhydrides, amides and citrate-based siderophores is reviewed.

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P. p. p. p. 5). The Martinez de la Cuesta et al. 0 w Fig. 8 Boiling points of aqueous solutions of citric acid as a function of its weight fraction. 0–20 molal solutions. Bogdanov et al. [79] and Averbukh et al. 5). Introduction of vapour pressures instead of boiling points leads to an alternative way to describe the colligative properties of solutions. p. ( m), the vapour pressure of water above the solution is equal to that of the external pressure p. 24) ∆ P (m) = [ p (H 2 O; T ) − p (m ; T )] = [1 − aw (m ; T )] p (H 2 O; T ) is called the vapour pressure lowering of solution.

9972 mol kg−1 KCl [112]. 19. 25 -1 m2 or m3 /molkg Fig. 19 The apparent molar volumes of citric acid and trisodium citrate in aqueous solutions and the mean apparent molar volumes in the citric acid–trisodium citrate solutions as a function of concentration at 25 °C [112]. 8211 mol kg−1 Na3Cit V2,ϕ(H3Cit) and the mean apparent volumes increase with citric acid concentration, ∂V2,3,ϕ( m2,m3)/∂m2 > 0. At constant m3, the mean apparent molar volume increases with m2, and an increase in concentration of KCl causes the difference V2,ϕ(H3Cit) − V2,3,ϕ( m2,m3) to increase.

There is also a small number of investigations dealing with solubilities of citric acid in pure organic solvents or in mixtures of organics with water [84–87], but they will be treated separately later. 4 Solubility of Citric Acid in Water 35  PPRONJ             W & Fig. 9 Solubility of citric acid in water as a function of temperature. ■ - [7]; ■ - [15]; ■ - [8]; ■ - [14]; ■ - [69]; ■ - [10, 82]; ■ - [11]; ■ - [83]; ■ - [12, 84, 86] where w is the weight fraction of citric acid.

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