British Technology and European Industrialization: The by Kristine Bruland

By Kristine Bruland

How did small ecu economies collect the applied sciences and talents had to industrialize within the 19th century? during this vital contribution to a long-standing debate, Kristine Bruland appears to be like on the Norwegian adventure to teach how a technological infrastructure was once created, and means that a lot of this used to be as a result of the efforts of British laptop makers who from the mid 1840s vigorously sought international markets. delivering not just uncomplicated technical companies but in addition expert labour to establish after which supervise the operation of the recent equipment, British fabric engineering organisations have been in a position to provide an entire 'package' of companies, considerably easing the preliminary technical difficulties confronted by way of Norwegian marketers. Kristine Bruland's case-study of the Norwegian fabric demonstrates sincerely the ambiguity that Britain's entrepreneurial efforts within the offer of capital items in another country have been principally liable for the production of the technical business bases of a lot of her significant overseas opponents.

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The actual process of manufacturing had not been looked on as the market product in its own right. 38 Subsequent historical studies on textile machinery have, as Kirk put it, 'exclusively focussed on the technical characteristics of the equipment to the neglect of the machinery-supplying industry'. 39 The authors referred to above have all shown that British textile machine makers were very active in international markets. But the bulk of the 36 38 39 37 See Footnote 53, Ch. 1, p. 21, above. Mathias, First Industrial Nation, p.

E. to respecify their entire insured stock) at ten year intervals, and this occurred, during the period of this study, in 1846,1856 and 1866-7. Valuations were in Specie Daler, which had an exchange rate of approximately 4 SD = £lStg through the period from 1845 to 1870. 5 First, there is the question of whether or not valuations are realistic. This is perhaps not a serious problem since there are incentives for insurance enterprises not to over-value insured property, and for firms not to be under-insured.

Deny, A History of Modern Norway 1814-1872 (Oxford, 1973), Chs. 1 and 2. Hjula Papers, Kopibok, 1861-1863, 28 June 1861. F. Hodne,^« Economic History ofNorway, 1815-1870 (Bergen, 1975), p. 42. 26 Britain and Norway, 1800-1845: Wo transitions industries mentioned above, and an increasing openness of the economy. I turn now to a brief description of these major industries. The Norwegian staple industries The Norwegian export trade was based, in the main, on timber, fishing and shipping, whose early nineteenth-century development will be outlined in this section.

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