Bleach Plant Effluents from the Pulp and Paper Industry by Pratima Bajpai

By Pratima Bajpai

This booklet covers bleach plant effluents, that the majority polluting effluent from the pulp and paper undefined. Disappearance of benthic invertebrates, a excessive occurrence of fish ailments, and mutagenic results at the aquatic fauna are many of the results of the disposal of bleach effluents into floor waters. This e-book describes environmental impression of bleach plant effluents, environmental laws, and measures to minimize the toxins load through inner strategy amendment and exterior remedy of bleach plant effluents.

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This allows bleach plant filtrates to be sent back through the mill’s chemical recovery system and reused instead of being treated and discharged. One way to remove chlorides is to substitute ozone for chlorine or chlorine dioxide in the first stage of the bleaching sequence, thus allowing the filtrates from the first bleaching and extraction stages to be recirculated to the recovery boiler. In the last stage of ozone-based ECF bleaching systems, chlorine dioxide is used to brighten the pulp (Bajpai 2012b).

Sulfite pulps can be easily bleached without the use of chlorine chemicals. The high-quality pulp purchased from Scandinavia is made by the sulfate process, and at that time bleaching was done with chlorine chemicals. So, the pulp mills in that region were forced to adopt TCF bleaching to maintain their dominance of the bleached Kraft pulp market in Germany. The North American industry was not affected by the same need to change to TCF bleaching as it exports very little bleached pulp to Germany.

Organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols are used for pulping. This process is economical for small- to medium-scale mills with significant recovery of chemicals for reuse. However, pulping must be conducted in enclosed containers to prevent the loss of volatile solvents and for workers’ safety. Major benefits include the elimination of odorous sulfur containing compounds in the effluents and air. The Organosolv pulping processes can be classified as organic acid based, alcohol/water based, and mixed processes which use inorganic and organic pulping chemicals.

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