By Mats Lindroos
The beta-beam inspiration for the new release of electron neutrino beams used to be first proposed by way of Piero Zucchelli in 2002. the belief created relatively a stir, difficult the concept that excessive neutrino beams in basic terms should be made from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams amenities or in destiny neutrino factories. the idea that first and foremost struggled to make an influence however the exertions through many desktop physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the past 5 years has received the beta-beam a well-earned place as one of many frontrunners for a potential destiny international laboratory for prime depth neutrino oscillation physics. this is often the 1st entire monograph at the beta-beam inspiration. The e-book describes either technical elements and experimental points of the beta-beam, supplying: scholars and scientists with an perception into the chances provided by way of beta-beams; facility designers with a place to begin for destiny reports; and, coverage makers with a finished photograph of the bounds and chances provided through a beta-beam.
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Extra resources for Beta Beams
Illustration courtesy of Robert Laxdal at TRIUMF. 2 Some basics about synchrotrons The synchrotron is basically a linac in which the particles are bent with dipole magnets into a closed orbit and return to the same radiofrequency cavities over and over again for acceleration. The injector – which could be a linac – ﬁlls the machine with particles, but as soon as acceleration has started and the ﬁeld in the dipoles is increased to keep the particles on a closed orbit, no new beam can be injected.
As we want to have as many ions as possible to achieve a high intensity neutrino beam, the space charge limitations will be very important and will ultimately determine the absolute limit of any beta-beam facility in which we use circular machines. There are evidently many other eﬀects which might limit the number of ions in the accelerator before the space charge limit is reached, such as beam loading of the accelerating cavities. Similarly, the beam impedance of the ensemble of vacuum chambers might induce other types of beam instabilities, such as multi-bunch instabilities.
A converter target for the production of 6 He has been studied [89, 90] using the reaction n + 9 Be = 6 He + 4 He which has a large cross section of some 100 mbarn. To the left in Fig. 4 the conceptual design of the beryllium-oxide target and Tungsten converter system from  is shown. The beryllium-oxide is either in ﬁber form or pellets which will permit the Helium atoms to diﬀuse out of the target. The beam used to generate the neutrons from the converter is a 1 GeV proton beam and the resulting relative neutron ﬂux is shown to the right in Fig.