Basics of perturbative QCD by Yuri Dokshitzer

By Yuri Dokshitzer

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2 Niels Bohr (left) and Wolfgang Pauli at the Solvay Conference in 1948. Source: Pauli Archive / CERN. single process. Therefore, in beta radioactivity, electrons pop out of the nucleus with random energies. In a period in which relativity and quantum mechanics were overthrowing all known principles, nothing in physics seemed sacred anymore. Even the beloved principle of energy conservation – a cornerstone of classical physics – could be demolished, according to Bohr. ”14 Bohr continued to pursue his idea and even imagined that energy violation in beta radioactivity could explain the apparently eternal energy production in stars.

23 24 A. Pais, Subtle is the Lord, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1982. J. Sayen, Einstein in America, Crown Publishers, New York 1985. 48 | A Z E P T O S PA C E O D Y S S E Y Marshak did not know that some Japanese physicists had already proposed the same idea in 1942, but scientific communication between Japan and the United States at that time was rather strained, for obvious reasons. Moreover, none of the scientists present at Shelter Island was aware of a very interesting result obtained on the Old Continent.

Not much was known about the strong force, other than a peculiar property. Measurements of proton and neutron diffusion had shown that the strong force acted roughly in the same way on both kinds of particles, and this property was called charge independence. But the origin of the strong force remained a total mystery. In 1934, the Japanese theoretical physicist Hideki Yukawa (1907– 1981, Nobel Prize 1949) had the idea that ensured him a place in the history of science: “The nuclear force is effective at extremely small distances.

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