Basic Radio Theory Tutorial - PPSC

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The significance of the ionosphere is that radio waves, on entering a layer of ionised gases, will tend to both bend and weaken. Chapter 1 Page 53 © G LONGHURST 1999 All Rights Reserved Worldwide Basic Radio Theory FIGURE 1-29 The Ionospheric Layers 66. Chapter 1 Page 54 The average heights of the various ionospheric layers are as follows: (a) D Layer 75 km. (b) E Layer 125 km. (c) F Layer 225 km. © G LONGHURST 1999 All Rights Reserved Worldwide Basic Radio Theory Attenuation 67. As any radio wave travels away from the transmitter it becomes weaker, or is attenuated, due to some or all of the reasons discussed below.

25 ( H1 + H 2 ) where H1 is the height of the transmitter in feet, amsl H2 is the height of the receiver in feet, amsl 85. Chapter 1 Page 58 Obviously the presence of intervening high ground will invalidate the above formula. © G LONGHURST 1999 All Rights Reserved Worldwide Basic Radio Theory FIGURE 1-30 The Direct Wave The Surface Wave 86. Fortunately, the maximum range from a transmitter at which radio signals can be received is not always limited to the direct wave range. At frequencies in the LF and MF bands diffraction has the effect of altering the direction of travel of the radio wave such that some will more or less follow the Earth’s curvature.

Occasionally radio reception suffers from the effects of fading. g. surface wave and skywave) before meeting at the receiving aerial. If the two signals arrive in phase they will reinforce each other, if they arrive in antiphase they will cancel out; if therefore, in the above example, the ionosphere is fluctuating in intensity and height the path length taken by a skywave will vary continuously, leading to fading in and out of the signal. Polar Diagrams 56. A transmitter polar diagram is simply a pictorial presentation of the strength of the electromagnetic energy field in all directions from the transmitter aerial.

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