By Kathleen C. Taylor
The use of catalytic converters for the purification of automobile exhaust gases is a comparatively new expertise which was once introduced into lifestyles by way of social pressures for the protection of appropriate environmental stipulations. the vast majority of catalytic practitioners were in a position to watch the expansion of this expertise from its inception to its present country of class. automobile catalytic converter expertise is now in a mature country, and this bankruptcy from Vol. five Catalysis: technological know-how and expertise through Dr. okay. C. Taylor presents a evaluation which covers either the method chemistry and an important converter layout elements. Contents 1. advent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Emission laws within the usa. three. Exhaust Emission features. . three four. 1981 Emission keep an eye on know-how. five A. Converters. . . five B. keep watch over procedure. 7 eight ~. Catalyst Screening . 6. Laboratory checking out. .10 7. The Chemical Reactions thirteen eight. Composition of Three-Way Catalysts. sixteen A. Rhodium 17 21 B. Platinum. C. Palladium 22 D. Iridium . 22 23 E. Ruthenium and Nickel. F. Cerium Oxide ..... 23 G. look for choices to Nohle Metals 24 nine. Catalyst helps . 25 A. Pellets .... 26 B. Monoliths . . 26 10. The brief habit of Three-Way Catalysts 27 II. Deterioration of Three-Way Catalysts. 35 A. Thermal results. . . . 35 B. Phosphorus Poisoning. . . 37 C. Lead Poisoning. . . . . . · 38 D. Catalyst Poisoning via Sulfur · forty 12. The 0.4 NO,; study aim. · forty-one thirteen. regulate of Diesel Particulate Emissions.
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Additional info for Automobile Catalytic Converters
Res. Develop. 11,2 (1972) 38. Mannion, W. ; Cohn, J. ; Thompson, C. ; Mooney, J. : in: Catalysts for the Control of Automobile Pollutants, Adv. in Chern. Ser. , 1975 39. Breitenbach, L. : J. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 23, 128 (1973) 40. Taylor, K. : Ind. Eng. Chern. Prod. Res. Develop. 15, 264 (1976) 41. Barnes, G. ; Summers, J. : Paper No. 750093, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers, February, 1975 42. Hammerle, R. : Paper No. 750097, presented to Society of Automotive Engineers, February, 1975 43.
Little sulfuric acid was emitted by oxidation catalysts, but a large research effort was committed to the study of this subject. This literature on S02 oxidation will not be reviewed here. The lower activity of three-way catalysts for S02 oxidation in vehicle tests compared with oxidation catalysts has been attributed to the use ofRh [152, 153]. Furthermore, the low oxygen content and the high CO concentration close to the stoichiometric AjF suppress S02 oxidation . Likewise, control of the A/F at the stoichiometrically balanced composition restricts S02 reduction to H2S .
1300 K) are unlikely. Surface interactions between Rh and alumina whereby Rh reportedly diffuses into the subsurface region and the bulk during heat treatment above 813 K was discussed earlier  . Several research groups have reported on surface segregation of Rh in Pt-Rh containing three-way catalysts and in supported Pt-Rh alloys following exposure to oxidizing conditions [64, 137]. For example, Cooper et al.  reported that a Pt-Rh three-way catalyst aged 50 h in oxidizing exhaust showed both crystal growth of the Pt-Rh phase and surface enrichment of Rh in the crystallites.