By Norman D. Thomson, Raymond P. Polivka (auth.)
This booklet is designed for individuals with a operating wisdom of APL who want to bring up their fluency within the wide selection of additional amenities provided via second-generation APL items. even though the first product in view is IBM's APL2 as applied on mainframe, laptop and RS/6000, the language fea tures lined percentage huge universal floor with APL *PLUS II and Oyalog APL. it is a booklet approximately abilities instead of wisdom, and an acquaintance with a few number of APL at the reader's half is thought from the beginning. it's designed to be learn as a continual textual content, interspersed with exer cises designed to offer steadily deeper perception into what the authors conceive because the gains that have the best influence on programming suggestions. it can even be appropriate as a text-book for a moment direction in APL2, even if event means that so much programming language studying is now via self examine, in order that this quantity is likely to offer follow-up studying to extra basic texts reminiscent of "APL2 at a look" by way of Brown, Pakin and Polivka. fabric is mentioned extra informally than in a language guide - during this ebook textual bulk is in share to hassle and significance instead of to the level of technical info. certainly, a few APL2 extensions usually are not coated in any respect the place the technicalities pose no nice difficulties in knowing and will be effortlessly assimilated from the language manuals.
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ICHARSI I r+-, +ABI ICDI I r+ I i-. I 11 2 3 41 16 L-J L~ CHARS 2 10M11 :;1 10M11 Consider the following attempts to extract the character H from the matrix M11: 26 APL2 IN DEPTH 201 10M11 RANK ERROR 201 10M11 /\/\ 20::>1 10M11 H These show that repeated applications of indexing alone are not sufficient to extract a nested item. The cause of this apparent dilemma stems from the shape of the result of indexing. Informally the rule is the shape of the result is the catenation of the shapes of the indices.
Using DCS for ordering character data has the advantage that the same letters in different cases are grouped together as opposed to DAV ordering in which all the letters in one case precede any of the letters in another. Also numeric characters appear in numerical order rather than in character order as happens using DAV, that is • 9' precedes • 10' using DCS. When discussing numeric vectors, it avoids ambiguity to use the word "ranking" rather than "rank" to denote positions of items following either ascending or descending ordering.
For example: HLL 'HELLO'N'AEIOU' Without returns all items of the vector (or scalar) left argument in the right argument A. The result is always a vector. v which are not T+'A'N'B' T A DISPLAY T DISPLAY 'A'N'A' r&1 I I LJ o T;:'A' Special attention must be paid to nested arrays since without in its comparisons takes into consideration both the shape and structure of items. I DISPLAY KNc'BC' r+1 IAI LJ 1. J LE: r+ DISPLAY LNc. J LE: I LE: r+, DISPLAY HNcc'BC' IAI L-J In summary, the items of the right argument of the function without must reflect the same structure (that is shape and depth) as the left argument if they are to be discarded in the result.