Anglo-Italian Relations in the Middle East, 1922-1940 by Massimiliano Fiore

By Massimiliano Fiore

Among 1923 and 1934, Britain and Italy waged warfare by way of proxy within the center East. at the back of the looks of ecu collaboration, family members among London and Rome within the crimson Sea have been significantly stressful. even supposing realistically Mussolini couldn't identify or hold colonies within the Arabian Peninsula within the face of British competition, his regime undertook a couple of projects within the quarter to reinforce Italo-Arab kinfolk and to pave the best way for destiny enlargement as soon as the stability of energy in Europe had shifted in Italy's favour. This ebook examines 4 key features of family members among Britain and Italy within the heart East within the interwar interval: the war of words among London and Rome for political impact between Arab leaders and nationalists; the contest for advertisement and exchange merits within the zone; the Anglo-Italian propaganda conflict to win the hearts and minds of the Arab populations; and, the key international of British and Italian espionage and intelligence. a close research of those 4 key components demonstrates how Anglo-Italian kin broke down over the interwar interval and complements our wisdom and realizing of the criteria best as much as the widening of the second one international struggle within the Mediterranean. This publication is key analyzing for students taken with Anglo-Italian family, the actions of the Powers within the heart East and the tensions among the colonial powers.

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50 Memorandum written by Mallett, ‘Concessions in Asir’, 20 July 1926, E 4258/2660/91 FO 371/11447. 51 ADM to Crowe, ‘Italian Activities in the Red Sea’, 30 November 1925, E 7439/176/91 FO 371/10819. 52 Director of Plans to the Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff, ‘Empire Naval Policy and Cooperation, 1926’, 1 April 1926, ADM 116/2311. 53 Memorandum written by Mallett, ‘Menace to Farasan Islands and Kamaran as Result of War Material Being Supplied to Imam by Italy’, 15 July 1926, E 4332/2660/91 FO 371/11447.

Doctors, most of them Medical Officers of Military Intelligence Service, took charge of the local Turkish dispensary at Sanaa, organising a widespread spy network. 35 Additionally, arms and ammunitions were supplied in lavish quantities to the Imam Yahya Muhammad Hamidaddin for use in his long-standing conflict with the Idrisi Sayed Ali over Asir. 36 This growing Italian influence in south-west Arabia, a region representing ‘the most delicate link in their chain of sea communications with the Far East’, posed serious problems for the British.

88 The awkwardness of the new Italian position in the Red Sea was neatly encapsulated in an interesting memorandum for the Ministry for the Colonies by the recently designated Governor of Eritrea. ’ He added that such a policy was only possible in the form it took because ‘if the Anglo-Yemeni dispute had not existed, we would not have been able to penetrate politically nor economically in Yemen. 89 This sharp change of direction could not, and did not, pass unnoticed by the Imam. 91 It is interesting to note that by that time the bill due to the Italian Government DDI, 7th, vol.

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