An Introduction to GCC by Brian J. Gough, Richard M. Stallman

By Brian J. Gough, Richard M. Stallman

I have been interpreting and utilizing this little publication for the previous few weeks. i am an skilled C programmer yet i needed to modify to GCC having deserted either Borland (my model used to be getting particularly previous) & Microsoft (messy with a crippled deployment procedure) compilers on Win XP.

This small e-book, and that's certainly one of its nice charms, is ideal. It particularly helped me make the transition and i've been very sucessfully development code on Ubuntu Linux and Win XP (MinGW) with GCC. as soon as up and working the extra sophisticated gains are available on the net on the GNU site (an instance for me used to be easy methods to swap off definite warnings comparable to -Wno-unused).

Though GCC is intrinsically tied to Linux the data within the e-book is quickly translatable to the MinGW-Win XP environment.

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For example, the following loop from 0 to 7 tests the condition i < 8 on each iteration: for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) { y[i] = i; } At the end of the loop, this test will have been performed 9 times, and a large fraction of the run time will have been spent checking it. A more efficient way to write the same code is simply to unroll the loop and execute the assignments directly: y[0] = 0; y[1] = 1; y[2] = 2; y[3] = 3; y[4] = 4; y[5] = 5; y[6] = 6; y[7] = 7; This form of the code does not require any tests, and executes at maximum speed.

2 Strict ANSI/ISO The command-line option ‘-pedantic’ in combination with ‘-ansi’ will cause gcc to reject all GNU C extensions, not just those that are incompatible with the ANSI/ISO standard. This helps you to write portable programs which follow the ANSI/ISO standard. Here is a program which uses variable-size arrays, a GNU C extension. The array x[n] is declared with a length specified by the integer variable n. c:5: warning: ISO C90 forbids variable-size array ‘x’ Note that an absence of warnings from ‘-ansi -pedantic’ does not guarantee that a program strictly conforms to the ANSI/ISO standard.

Out’. Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault. done. done. c:13 13 int y = *p; (gdb) The final line (gdb) is the GNU Debugger prompt—it indicates that further commands can be entered at this point. To investigate the cause of the crash, we display the value of the pointer p using the debugger print command: (gdb) print p $1 = (int *) 0x0 This shows that p is a null pointer (0x0) of type ‘int *’, so we know that dereferencing it with the expression *p in this line has caused the crash.

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