By Professor Mark Z. Jacobson
This new version of Mark Jacobson's textbook presents a finished advent to the heritage and technological know-how of the main pollution and weather difficulties that face the realm this day, in addition to the power and coverage suggestions to these difficulties. each bankruptcy has been introduced thoroughly updated with new info, figures, and textual content. there's a new extra bankruptcy on large-scale suggestions to weather and pollution difficulties. Many extra colour pictures and diagrams and lots of extra examples and homework difficulties were further. this can be a fantastic introductory textbook on pollution for college students taking classes in atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, environmental technological know-how, Earth technological know-how, civil and environmental engineering, chemistry, environmental legislation and politics, and town making plans and law. it is going to additionally shape a worthy reference textual content for researchers, and an creation to the topic for basic audiences.
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Extra resources for Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions
The rate of change of the concentration of A, denoted by [A], which has units of molecules per cubic centimeter of air (molec. 8 from concentration [A]0 at time t = 0 to concentration [A] at time t = h gives [A] = [A]0 e−Jh . 10) J In the case of a collision reaction, B + C → products, which has a rate coefficient of k in units of cm3 molec. 11) = −k[B] [C]0 dt where [C] is held constant (as denoted by the subscript 0). 11 gives [B] = [B]0 e−k[C]0 h . 13) A = 1 1 + + · · · 1An A1 A2 In this equation, A is the overall chemical lifetime of species A and A1 , .
What Black did not recognize was that fixed air, or CO2 (g), had been discovered by Van Helmont more than a century before. In 1756, Black also isolated ammonia gas [NH3 (g)], previously observed by Van Helmont and later called “alkaline acid air” by Joseph Priestley. 7. Molecular Hydrogen Again – Inflammable Air In 1766, Henry Cavendish (1731–1810), an English chemist and physicist, followed up Black’s work by producing a gas he called “inflammable air” (highly flammable gas). This gas was obtained by diluting either sulfuric acid [H2 SO4 (aq)] or hydrochloric acid [HCl(aq)] with water and pouring the resulting solution on a metal, such as iron, zinc, or tin.
The reason, although he did not know it at the time, was that both reacted with oxygen during combustion by 4P(s) + fire + 5O2 (g) → P4 O10 (s) and S(s) + fire + O2 (g) → SO2 (g), respectively. In early 1774, he also discovered that lead and tin weighed more and consumed one-sixth to one-fifth of the volume of air when they were burned. Again, he did not yet realize that oxygen comprised about 21 percent of air and was consumed during combustion. 18. (a) Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–1786). (b) Scheele’s laboratory, with oven in center.