Afghanistan: A Military History From Alexander The Great To by Stephen Tanner

By Stephen Tanner

Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, the realm was once riveted as American army energy contested the mythical warrior tradition of Afghanistan. via spring 2002, the USA started to draw down its forces, its project entire: The Afghan Taliban regime has been overthrown and the terrorists it harbored have been at the run. was once America's effortless victory evidence of its army superiority, or have been the Afghans in simple terms eyeing the rookies as they've got watched international armies in centuries prior, realizing time is on their side?For over 2,500 years, the forbidding territory of Afghanistan has served as an essential crossroads--not only for armies yet for clashes among civilizations--the Greeks, Arabs, Mongols, and Tartars, and in additional fresh occasions, Britain and Russia. Now the United States needs to face a brand new enemy in this land--a land that for hundreds of years has turn into a graveyard of empires past.This first-ever whole army heritage of Afghanistan illuminates the extensive ancient context into which American forces were drawn--a cautionary story, probably, concerning the risks which can lie forward.

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Alexander the Great 21 positioning his army behind the Pidarus River that cut through a narrow plain between the Cilician hills and the coast. The Macedonians turned back and arrived at the position. Some officers were impressed that the Great King had constructed fortifications along some points of the river. This indicated to them that the Persians were afraid. Darius's army was far larger than Alexander's, which consisted of about 48,000 men, though by choosing such a confined battlefield he negated much of its superiority.

The Great King was found in a wagon, bound in gold chains and stabbed to death with javelins. Two dead slaves and one live pet dog were beside him. This was a severe blow to Alexander, to the degree that he craved legitimacy as well as power. Inheriting the empire from a pitifully murdered king was more an insult than a boon. Of course, that is exactly why the Great King—seen as a spent force and in any event a loser—was killed by his erstwhile loyalists. The nobles of Bactria and the East no longer desired to be tied to Darius's fortune; and if Alexander wished to keep marching, he would have to proceed against them, not the ill-fated Great King.

The Macedonian line had been flanked on both sides and cut through on its left. But suddenly his own guard began to cave in from an unexpected attack. Darius would fight if he could identify an enemy. Instead, he was suddenly surrounded by fallen or fleeing men. And a sudden onset of hoofbeats, clangs of metal, and shouts to his left informed him that Alexander was caving in his guard and heading straight for him. Arrian's statement that Darius was the first of the Persians to flee the battle can hardly be believed.

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