Advanced SQL functions in Oracle 10g by Richard Walsh Earp, Sikha Saha Bagui

By Richard Walsh Earp, Sikha Saha Bagui

Как известно, в Oracle 10g в репертуар инструкций языка SQL добавились новые возможности, делающие его ещё более мощным. Цель этой книги - самым доступным способом ознакомить программистов баз данных с этими новыми возможностями языка, чтобы они могли с успехом их применять в своей работе. Авторы снабдили каждую главу многочисленными работающими примерами для того, чтобы читатели могли сразу же опробовать новые возможности в процессе работы с книгой. Многие книги по Oracle 10g рассказывают только про синтаксис языка. В отличие от них, в этой книге кроме простого описания синтаксиса новых команд и функций авторы также дают совершенно ясное и детальное описание того, как эти функции работают и примеры как можно и нужно их использовать.

Сразу предупреждаю, что эта книга не расчитана на обучение языку SQL "с нуля". Предполагается, что читатель уже имеет опыт работы с Oracle, SQL*Plus и, в некоторых случаях, с PL/SQL. Основной упор в этой книге сделан именно на обучение новым возможностям Oracle 10g тех людей, которые перешли на "десятку" с более ранних версий. Вот что говорят о книге сами авторы:
This ebook typically addresses complex themes in SQL with a spotlight on SQL features for Oracle 10g. The features and techniques we disguise contain the analytical services, version statements, average expressions, and object-oriented/collection buildings. We additionally introduce and provides examples of the SQL/XML bridges as XML is a more recent and customary approach to moving info from person to person. we depend seriously on examples, as so much SQL programmers can and do adapt examples to different difficulties quickly.

Насколько я знаю, книга на русский язык не переводилась.

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If search pattern is not in the string, the INSTR function returns 0, as shown by the query below: SELECT INSTR('This is a test','abc',1,2) FROM dual Which would give: INSTR('THISISATEST','ABC',1,2) -----------------------------0 19 Common Oracle Functions: A Function Review The SUBSTR Function The SUBSTR function returns part of a string. The general syntax of the function is as follows: SUBSTR(original string, begin [,how far]) An original string is to be dissected beginning at the begin character.

42 Format Will look like dd Month yyyy 05 March 2006 dd month YY 05 march 06 dd Mon 05 Mar dd RM yyyy 05 III 2003 Chapter | Format Will look like Day Mon yyyy Sunday Mar 2006 Day fmMonth dd, yyyy Sunday March 5, 2006 Mon ddsp yyyy Mar five 2006 ddMon yy hh24:mi:ss 05Mar 06 00:00:00 2 BREAK Often when looking at a result set it is convenient to “break” the report on some column to produce easyto-read output. Consider the Employee table result set like this (with columns formatted): SELECT empno, ename, curr_salary, region FROM employee ORDER BY region Giving: EMPNO ----108 111 122 101 106 102 104 ENAME CURR_SALARY REGION ---------- ----------- -----David 39,000 E Kate 49,000 E Lindsey 52,000 E John 39,000 W Chloe 44,000 W Stephanie 44,000 W Christina 55,000 W Now, if we execute the command: BREAK ON region the output is formatted to look like the following, where the regions are displayed once and the output is arranged by region: 43 Reporting Tools in Oracle’s SQL*Plus EMPNO ----108 111 122 101 106 102 104 ENAME CURR_SALARY REGION ---------- ----------- -----David 39,000 E Kate 49,000 Lindsey 52,000 John 39,000 W Chloe 44,000 Stephanie 44,000 Christina 55,000 If a blank line is desired between the regions, we can enhance the BREAK command with a skip like this: BREAK ON region skip1 to produce: EMPNO ----108 111 122 101 106 102 104 ENAME CURR_SALARY REGION ---------- ----------- -----David 39,000 E Kate 49,000 Lindsey 52,000 John Chloe Stephanie Christina 39,000 W 44,000 44,000 55,000 It is very important to note that the query contains an ORDER BY clause that mirrors the BREAK command.

Trim character may be any character. The word FROM is necessary only if where or trim character is present. Here is an example: SELECT TRIM (' This string has leading and trailing spaces ') FROM dual Which gives: TRIM('THISSTRINGHASLEADINGANDTRAILINGSPACES ------------------------------------------This string has leading and trailing spaces Both the leading and trailing spaces are deleted. This is probably the most common use of the function. We can be more explicit in the use of the function, as shown in the following query: SELECT TRIM (both ' ' from ' FROM dual String with blanks ') Which gives: TRIM(BOTH''FROM'ST -----------------String with blanks In these examples, characters rather than spaces are trimmed: SELECT TRIM('F' from 'Frogs prefer deep water') FROM dual Which would give: TRIM('F'FROM'FROGSPREF ---------------------rogs prefer deep water 25 Common Oracle Functions: A Function Review Here are some other examples.

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