By Yongquan Fan
High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) units became frequent in communications, from the embedded to high-performance computing structures, and from on-chip to a large haul. trying out of HSSIs has been a not easy subject due to sign integrity matters, lengthy try time and the necessity of pricey tools. Accelerating try out, Validation and Debug of excessive velocity Serial Interfaces presents cutting edge attempt and debug methods and distinct directions on tips on how to arrive to functional try out of contemporary high-speed interfaces.
Accelerating attempt, Validation and Debug of excessive velocity Serial Interfaces first proposes a brand new set of rules that permits us to accomplish receiver try greater than a thousand occasions quicker. Then an under-sampling dependent transmitter attempt scheme is gifted. The scheme can thoroughly extract the transmitter jitter and end the full transmitter try inside of 100ms, whereas the try often takes seconds. The publication additionally provides and exterior loopback-based checking out scheme, the place and FPGA-based BER tester and a unique jitter injection approach are proposed. those schemes may be utilized to validate, try and debug HSSIs with facts fee as much as 12.5Gbps at a reduce try out expense than natural ATE options. furthermore, the e-book introduces an efficieng scheme to enforce excessive functionality Gaussian noise turbines, compatible for comparing BER functionality lower than noise conditions.
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Additional info for Accelerating Test, Validation and Debug of High Speed Serial Interfaces
If we treat the n as the total number of bits transmitted, p as the BER, and p n (k ) as the probability that k bit errors will occur, we can use the distribution to calculate the BER confidence level. We are interested in the probability that or fewer bit errors occur in n transmitted bits. The probability is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the binomial distribution and is expressed as p (e ≤ n! p k q n−k k = 0 k! ) ) = ∑ p n (k ) = ∑ k =0 Then, the confidence level can be expressed as: CL = 1 − ∑ [ k =0 n!
If the value is bigger than Vt, logic “1” is received; otherwise, logic “0” is received. An ideal receiver samples data in the middle of each data bit. Without amplitude noise, the receiver can always correctly recover the transmitted bit. Under the presence of jitter and noise, the transition edge of the signal can fluctuate horizontally across the sampling point (along the time axis), and the signal voltage can fluctuate vertically at the sampling point (along the voltage axis). Both the time deviation and amplitude deviation can cause a bit error – bit “0” is received as bit “1” or bit “1” is received as bit “0”.
The noise is introduced by the channel, as well as by electronic components, including amplifiers at the receiver. This type of noise is most often characterized as thermal noise, or statistically as Gaussian noise. Its PDF is expressed by p ( x) = 1 δ 2π e − ( x − mx ) 2 2δ 2 where mx is the mean and σ2 is the variance of the Gaussian random variable. , amount of noise), the type of waveforms used to transmit information over the channel, the transmitter power, the timing jitter, and the method of demodulation and decoding.