ABC of Physics : A Very Brief Guide by Lev Okun

By Lev Okun

Translated from Russian through Vitaly Kisin

This little e-book concentrates at the foundations of recent physics (its "ABC's") and its such a lot primary constants: c the speed of sunshine and ħ— the quantum of motion.

to begin with, the ebook is addressed to specialist physicists, yet to be able to in achieving maximal focus and readability it makes use of the easiest (high college) arithmetic. consequently many pages of the ebook may be necessary to varsity scholars and should entice a extra basic viewers.

Readership: students and readers within the actual sciences.

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We recall now that nature has this limiting velocity: c = 3 · 108 m/s. Then the increase in velocity should begin to decline long before we approach this limit. The increment to kinetic energy must also change. We have to conclude that Newtonian mechanics should be replaced by 1 Here I mean an active transformation when the position of the object undergoes changes, not when the coordinate system does. February 23, 2012 9:39 World Scientific Book - 7in x 5in Translational motion ABCPhysics 13 some other mechanics.

The spin differs from the angular momentum of orbital motion in that an absolutely free particle not executing orbital rotation has the spin nevertheless. As will be explained below, the particle spin plays key role in the formation of systems containing many particles. 7 Fermions and bosons∗ All particles fall into one of two large classes: fermions (with half-integer spin) and bosons (with integer spin). The electron whose spin is 12 is a fermion. The photon whose spin is 1 is a boson. System consisting of two or more identical particles radically differ from each other depending on whether these particles are fermions or bosons.

In the latter case an electron and a proton form a bound system and cannot fly apart. The first type of motion is known as infinite, the second type — finite since the motion occurs in a bounded part of space (For an elastic, free situation to convert to an inelastic, bound one it is sufficient for the electron to emit a photon carrying away the excess energy. 3 Principal quantum number The behavior of a bound electron–proton is dictated by the laws of quantum mechanics. Their binding energy ε can assume only specific (quantized) values.

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