By M. Y. Han
This e-book provides the fundamental facets of relativistic quantum box thought, with minimum use of arithmetic. It covers the advance of quantum box thought from the unique quantization of electromagnetic box to the gauge box conception of interactions between quarks and leptons. geared toward either scientists and non-specialists, it calls for just some rudimentary wisdom of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formula of Newtonian mechanics and a easy knowing of the detailed conception of relativity and quantum mechanics.
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Extra info for Story of Light: A Short Introduction to Quantum Theory of Quarks and Leptons
The works of Coulomb, Gauss, Biot–Savart, Amp`ere, and Faraday led Maxwell to the great uniﬁcation of electricity and magnetism into a single theory of an electromagnetic ﬁeld. Together with Einstein’s theory of gravitational ﬁeld, Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic ﬁeld is one of the most elegant of classical ﬁeld theories. Maxwell’s equations are given, in the natural unit system, as ∇ · E = ρ, ∇ · B = 0, ∂E = J, (inhomogeneous) ∂t ∂B ∇×E+ = 0. (homogeneous) ∂t ∇×B− where E and B are the electric and magnetic ﬁelds and ρ and J are the electric charge and current densities.
Now, an important caveat is in order about a matter of terminology in quantum physics. The new quantum reality, the wave–particle duality, describes a quantum thing that is neither a particle in classical sense nor a wave in classical sense. We can shorten the name to simply duality, that is, electrons, protons, neutrons and photons, etc should all be called duality, certainly not particle nor wave. Our reluctance or inability to part with the word “particle” is such that, however, the objects in the quantum world — be they electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, quarks and whatever — are continually referred to as “particles,” as in unstable particles, elementary particle physics and so on.
Relativistic quantum-mechanical wave equations such as the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are to be reinterpreted as classical ﬁeld equations at the same level as Maxwell’s equation for the classical electromagnetic ﬁeld! This is deﬁnitely a leap of faith. Overnight the wave amplitudes for particles (that is, the particle– wave dualities) were turned into corresponding classical ﬁelds and the wave equations of relativistic quantum mechanics were turned Emulation of Light I: Matter Fields 39 into corresponding “classical” equations for the classical ﬁelds.