By Gordon Legge

**Read Online or Download A Journalist's Guide to Islam PDF**

**Best middle east books**

**Political Thought in Medieval Islam: An Introductory Outline**

Muhammad based a World-State in addition to a religion; as Islam unfold from its first centres, Muslim political thinkers needed to observe the divinely published legislation of the Prophet to new conditions. that they had to narrate new realities of energy and authority to the perfect structure which he had laid down and which his speedy successors had elaborated.

**The Persian Gulf War: Lessons for Strategy, Law, and Diplomacy (Contributions in Military Studies)**

Even supposing the steadiness of the Persian Gulf area has been of emerging value because global battle II, it used to be in the course of the Nineteen Eighties, while the Iran-Iraq conflict threatened to disenchanted the stability of energy within the area, that its value turned much more magnified. This number of essays surveys the present country of that zone, putting into clearer viewpoint the political, safety, and diplomatic dimensions of the lately ended conflict.

**Baghdad without a Map and Other Misadventures in Arabia**

This wild and comedian story of center East misadventure is "a very humorous and often insightful examine the world's so much flamable zone. Fearlessness is a beneficial caliber in a commute author, and Mr. Horwitz . . . turns out as intrepid as they come". --The ny instances e-book evaluate

**Extra info for A Journalist's Guide to Islam**

**Sample text**

For instance, if the third 32 Recurrent Neural Networks and Soft Computing input is ρ , then the entries in the third row of Bc should all be positive. Similarly, if the first output is the velocity correction vinc then the first column of Woc can take both negative /positive small values to allow the ANN to increase or decrease the robot speed while avoiding instability. Fig. 5. 5 Training phase To train the ANN, the following objective function is minimized: objg = 1 Np Np K i ρip p= 1 i= 1 (10) where ‘ ρip ’ is the distance between the desired location on the pth path and the corresponding robot's actual location at the ith time instant, K i is the number of points along the path to be tracked and N p is the number of paths used in training.

7). Thus, the proposed modifications to conventional ANNs succeeded in producing an improved ANFIS system capable of outperforming both conventional ANNs and ANFIS for problems where the desired ANN output is not known a priori (like in the path tracking case study). 46 Recurrent Neural Networks and Soft Computing Fig. 14. Architecture of a typical ANFIS system for a 2 inputs single output example A Framework for Bridging the Gap Between Symbolic and Non-Symbolic AI 47 Fig. 15. Shows the results for using conventional ANNs and ANFIS instead of the proposed formulation for case B.

The membership function of a R is a ( x ) 1, if x a and a ( x ) 0 if x a . Hence if a 0 we have the following 1 x 0 0 x 0. 1 Definition For A and B E, define the ranking of A and B by saying A B iff A B iff A B iff d( A, 0 ) d( B, 0 ), d( A, 0 ) d( B, 0 ), d( A, 0 ) d( B, 0 ). 2 Property Suppose A and B E , are arbitrary, therefore If A B then A B. If B A and LA1 (r )2 RA1 (r )2 LB1 (r )2 RB1 (r )2 for all r 0,1 then B A. 1/2 (20) If A B it is not necessary that A B .