A History of the Modern Middle East (5th Edition) by William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton

By William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton

This finished paintings offers a penetrating research of recent center jap heritage, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, in the course of the problem of Western imperialism, to the impression of US foreign guidelines. After introducing the reader to the region’s heritage from the origins of Islam within the 7th century, A heritage of the fashionable heart East specializes in the prior centuries of profound and infrequently dramatic swap. even supposing outfitted round a framework of political heritage, the ebook additionally conscientiously integrates social, cultural, and monetary advancements right into a unmarried, expertly crafted account. In updating this 5th variation of the overdue William Cleveland’s renowned introductory textual content, Martin Bunton offers an intensive account of the foremost transformative advancements during the last 4 years, together with a brand new bankruptcy at the tumultuous Arab uprisings and the participation of Islamist events in a brand new political order within the center East.

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The Prophet's successor, Abu Bakr, suppressed the revolt (ridda) of the Bedouins and forced them to adopt Islam and pay the legal tax (zakat). After unifying the peninsula, he carried the war (jihad) beyond Arabia. The jihad provided non-Muslims with an alternative: conversion or tribute; refusal forced the Muslims to fight them till victory. Arab idolaters had to choose between death or conversion; as for Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians, if they paid tribute and accepted the conditions of conquest, they could buy back their right to life, freedom of worship, and security of property.

When Amorium was ransacked (838) and surrendered by a Muslim traitor, the caliph Mu'tasim had four thousand inhabitants put to the sword; women and children sold into slavery were deported; Greek captives, who could not be deported, were killed 2: The Era of Conquests 49 on the spot. A prisoners' revolt was put down by the extermination of six thousand Greeks. Despite the fragmentation of the Arab Empire into emirates or semiautonomous provinces, the razzias to collect booty and slaves, carried out in the name of the caliph, continued century after century with varying success.

40 It is enough in this context to summarize the general consequences for the indigenous population. The continuous migration of whole tribes with their flocks-tribes originating from different regions of Arabia and often hostile to one another-not only created problems of settlement in towns and country areas that were among the most fertile and most highly populated, it also gave rise to difficulties regarding subsidies and cohabitation with the native population, the nomads being adverse to agricultural and urban occupations.

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